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To install home solar power system also said as DIY ( Do it by Yourself ), it is not difficult, you just need five components:
1. Solar panels,
2. Mounting system,
4. Solar Inverter,
Usually, home solar system is about 1KW~5KW, below is a 5KW home solar system for example:
1. How to choose solar panels ?
Presently, solar cells can be classified as noncrystalline silicon and crystalline silicon. Crystalline silicon can be classified as polycrystalline silicon and monocrystalline silicon. From their conversion rate, monocrystalline is around 17.6%, polycrystalline is around 16%, noncrystalline is around 6%. Crystalline silicon nearly can’t generate electricity under weak sunlight radiation, noncrystalline silicon has better low light performance, but its power generation is so small under weak sunlight radiation. In a word, it is better to adopt crystalline silicon materials, but considering high cost for monocrystalline silicon, we choose polycrystalline silicon as example. If we choose 250W polycrystalline solar panel, that will need 20pcs 250W panels.
2. How to choose mounting ?
Solar mounting is specially designed for solar panels to set, to install and to fix. Usually, their materials is aluminum alloy, stainless steel, its lifespan would be more long after the process of hot galvanizing. Mounting mainly are classified as stationary type and auto to trace. Presently, in market, some stationary type mounting can be made some adjustment according to seasonal variation of sunlight. The inclination angle of each solar panel can be adjusted to be suitable for different angle of sunlight, then fastening the panel to the accurate location. The solar mounting with auto to trace has rotatable equipment, it can adjust its location according to the variation of sunlight, making most use of sunlight, but its relative cost is high. In China, solar panels are installed oriented South, customers can choose stationary type solar mounting to reduce cost.
3. How to choose cables ?
Inverter is to convert DC from solar panels into AC, so we can treat it as DC part between solar panels and inverter, the DC part need choose the DC cables which is specially designed for solar pv system. Moreover, at many times, solar panels are used under villainous weather condition, such as strong ultraviolet ray, Ozone, sharply temperature variation and chemical corrosion, etc, which requires that solar cables need endure wind and rainy, endure ultraviolet ray and Ozone corrosion, and can stand large-scale sharply temperature variation. So, it is suggestion to use these cables which are specially designed for solar pv system, it would effect lifespan spread whole of pv system. Usually, 4mm^2 or 6mm^2 diameter cables can be chosen for a 5KW home solar power system.
4. How to choose inverter ?
Firstly, we consider the orientation of solar panels, if the orientation of solar panels are not the same, we suggest to use dual-MPPT solar inverter which can be treated as dual-core processor, Each core process an orientation, then to choose the relative inverter according to power capacity of the solar system. A 5KW solar system can choose a set of 5KW dual-MPPT solar inverter.
5. Measure Meter (Two-way meters).
Two-way meter is the electric energy meter which can measure electric usage and electric generation. Power and electric energy have direction, electric usage can be calculated as positive power or positive electric energy, power generation can be calculated as negative power or negative electric energy. Two-way meter can show its positive power or negative power separately on its monitor and store its power data. The aim of two-way meter installation is to count when to transmit the superfluous power electricity to public grid when users can’t consume all of power electricity from solar panels completely. When power electricity from solar panels can’t meet users’ consumption, it need get power from public grid, here need make a count, ordinary meter don’t have this function, so need choose two-way intelligent meters.
After purchasing above parts, ordinary users just need look for a qualified electrician to deal with the wiring task, inclination angle of mounting keep 45°. For connection with inverter, just need refer to its manual.
10KW ~ 20KW home solar power system can be used If having garden, swimming pool or advanced technology farm village. Usually, 20KW solar system need 80pcs 250W solar panels, a set of three-dimensional dual-MPPT inverter, here the connection for inverter is relative complicated, need look for professional EPC to deal with.
Home solar power system is popular for residents, it is cleaning energy and environmental friendly. It can save electric fee, low cost to maintain, and get subsidy from government. Most of Countries are improving FiT (Feed-in-Tariff ) to support home solar pv system development, accelerate the technology improvement for solar modules.